docker镜像压缩squash的实现

本文主要介绍了docker镜像压缩squash的实现,文中通过示例代码介绍的非常详细,对大家的学习或者工作具有一定的参考学习价值,需要的朋友们下面随着小编来一起学习学习吧

docker build 通过Dockerfile 制作镜像会根据命令形成一层层layer,这样造成文件重复,镜像体积比较大;为了缩小层的数量及其大小,能够像压缩git commit一样压缩layer层,docker-squash能够执行此操作。Docker squash将压缩多个镜像layer层,以便删除存储在两头步骤中的所有数据,即删除掉重复数据。本文就docker-squash 使用效果展开讨论。

一、docker-squash 安装

pip install docker-squash
docker-squash --help
usage: docker-squash [-h] [-v] [--version] [-d] [-f FROM_LAYER] [-t TAG]
                     [-m MESSAGE] [-c] [--tmp-dir TMP_DIR]
                     [--output-path OUTPUT_PATH]
                     image
Docker layer squashing tool
positional arguments:
  image                 Image to be squashed
optional arguments:
  -h, --help            show this help message and exit
  -v, --verbose         Verbose output
  --version             Show version and exit
  -d, --development     Does not clean up after failure for easier debugging
  -f FROM_LAYER, --from-layer FROM_LAYER
                        Number of layers to squash or ID of the layer (or
                        image ID or image name) to squash from. In case the
                        provided value is an integer, specified number of
                        layers will be squashed. Every layer in the image will
                        be squashed if the parameter is not provided.
  -t TAG, --tag TAG     Specify the tag to be used for the new image. If not
                        specified no tag will be applied
  -m MESSAGE, --message MESSAGE
                        Specify a commit message (comment) for the new image.
  -c, --cleanup         Remove source image from Docker after squashing
  --tmp-dir TMP_DIR     Temporary directory to be created and used
  --output-path OUTPUT_PATH
                        Path where the image should be stored after squashing.
                        If not provided, image will be loaded into Docker
                        daemon

二、使用介绍

2.1、部分压缩指定层数

首先docker history查看镜像层数

docker history java:3.0
IMAGE               CREATED             CREATED BY                                      SIZE                COMMENT
63a1b1edb376        4 weeks ago         /bin/sh -c #(nop)  LABEL ImageName=reg.docke…   0B
<missing>           4 weeks ago         /bin/sh -c #(nop)  LABEL BaseRootfsLayerCoun…   0B
<missing>           4 weeks ago         /bin/sh -c #(nop)  LABEL BaseLayerCount=25      0B
<missing>           4 weeks ago         /bin/sh -c #(nop)  LABEL baseOS=reg.docker.a…   0B
<missing>           4 weeks ago         /bin/sh -c #(nop)  VOLUME [/home/admin/logs]    0B
<missing>           4 weeks ago         /bin/sh -c #(nop)  ENTRYPOINT ["/bin/sh" "-c…   0B
<missing>           4 weeks ago         /bin/sh -c #(nop)  ENV JVM_Xms= JVM_Xmx= JVM…   0B
<missing>           4 weeks ago         /bin/sh -c #(nop)  ENV JAVA_HOME=/opt/taobao…   0B
<missing>           4 weeks ago         /bin/sh -c #(nop)  ENV LANG=zh_CN.utf8          0B
<missing>           4 weeks ago         /bin/sh -c [[ $(uname -p) != "sw_64" ]] && r…   97MB
<missing>           4 weeks ago         /bin/sh -c yum clean --enablerepo=* all;    …   628MB
<missing>           4 weeks ago         /bin/sh -c #(nop) COPY file:cbad11e2b6b88c38…   19.9MB
<missing>           4 weeks ago         /bin/sh -c #(nop) COPY file:fd3bca1e9167d639…   21MB
<missing>           4 weeks ago         /bin/sh -c #(nop) COPY dir:2761dc242787e3ab8…   39.2MB
<missing>           4 weeks ago         /bin/sh -c #(nop) COPY dir:8a9faa49606db326b…   8.49MB
<missing>           4 weeks ago         /bin/sh -c #(nop)  LABEL ImageName=reg.docke…   0B
<missing>           4 weeks ago         /bin/sh -c #(nop)  LABEL BaseRootfsLayerCoun…   0B
<missing>           4 weeks ago         /bin/sh -c #(nop)  LABEL BaseLayerCount=10      0B
<missing>           4 weeks ago         /bin/sh -c #(nop)  LABEL baseOS=reg.docker.a…   0B
<missing>           4 weeks ago         /bin/sh -c #(nop)  ENTRYPOINT [""]              0B
<missing>           4 weeks ago         /bin/sh -c #(nop)  CMD ["/sbin/init"]           0B
<missing>           4 weeks ago         /bin/sh -c #(nop) COPY dir:61a850de6501dac7b…   3.03kB
<missing>           4 weeks ago         /bin/sh -c sed -i -e 's/root:[^:]*:/root:*:/…   94.6MB
<missing>           4 weeks ago         /bin/sh -c #(nop) COPY dir:ca4e72cff3459ccab…   395B
<missing>           16 months ago                                                       282MB               Imported from -

使用dive 工具查看镜像效率参数

CI=true dive java:3.0
Using default CI config
Image Source: docker://java:3.0
Fetching image... (this can take a while for large images)
Analyzing image...
efficiency: 78.5919 %
UserSizeByes: 90775433100 bytes (908 MB)
SizeByes: 118928447300 bytes (1.2 GB)
wastedBytes: 381696817 bytes (382 MB)
userWastedPercent: 42.0485 %
Inefficient Files:
Count  Wasted Space  File Path
2        119 MB  /usr/lib/locale/locale-archive
...
2           0 B  /usr/lib/systemd/system/runlevel0.target
Results:
FAIL: highestUserWastedPercent: too many bytes wasted, relative to the user bytes added (%-user-wasted-bytes=0.4204847104166557 > threshold=0.1)
SKIP: highestWastedBytes: rule disabled
FAIL: lowestEfficiency: image efficiency is too low (efficiency=0.7859187397531037 < threshold=0.9)
Result:FAIL [Total:3] [Passed:0] [Failed:2] [Warn:0] [Skipped:1

命令格式

docker-squash -f <层数,依据docker history> -t 新镜像名称 原镜像名称

如下:

docker-squash -f 11 -t java-squash-11:1.0 java:3.0
2023-01-20 13:41:43,978 root         INFO     docker-squash version 1.0.10, Docker 5138787, API 1.39...
2023-01-20 13:41:43,978 root         INFO     Using v2 image format
2023-01-20 13:41:43,982 root         INFO     Old image has 25 layers
2023-01-20 13:41:43,982 root         INFO     Checking if squashing is necessary...
2023-01-20 13:41:43,982 root         INFO     Attempting to squash last 11 layers...
2023-01-20 13:41:43,982 root         INFO     Saving image sha256:63a1b1edb376fb12838dbbef7749effc1e8e6a973d33a47aee194eff6a173edd to /tmp/docker-squash-OlTnlF/old directory...
2023-01-20 13:42:03,134 root         INFO     Image saved!
2023-01-20 13:42:03,135 root         INFO     Squashing image 'java:3.0'...
2023-01-20 13:42:03,136 root         INFO     Starting squashing...
2023-01-20 13:42:03,870 root         INFO     Squashing file '/tmp/docker-squash-OlTnlF/old/ddf4a6e4ea15a7ca3825c70e116e40f3a01f25b7df008d4517c826ef78c03dc8/layer.tar'...
2023-01-20 13:42:06,729 root         INFO     Squashing file '/tmp/docker-squash-OlTnlF/old/7be6dcb4742458db7e2c77fb1ad9fd66555e6f08d28c74592a9b973740356919/layer.tar'...
2023-01-20 13:42:19,510 root         INFO     Squashing finished!
2023-01-20 13:42:22,736 root         INFO     Original image size: 1166.43 MB
2023-01-20 13:42:22,736 root         INFO     Squashed image size: 1153.64 MB
2023-01-20 13:42:22,736 root         INFO     Image size decreased by 1.10 %
2023-01-20 13:42:22,736 root         INFO     New squashed image ID is 794121cd589230285a51d969aac97c5e936d732b0feefe5c05e78b027e850312
2023-01-20 13:42:30,244 root         INFO     Image registered in Docker daemon as java-squash-11:1.0
2023-01-20 13:42:30,369 root         INFO     Done

压缩后体积如下:

docker images | grep java
java-squash-11       1.0            794121cd5892        About a minute ago   1.17GB
java                 3.0            63a1b1edb376        4 weeks ago          1.19GB

再次查看history

docker history java-squash-11:1.0
IMAGE               CREATED             CREATED BY                                      SIZE                COMMENT
794121cd5892        5 minutes ago                                                       703MB
<missing>           4 weeks ago         /bin/sh -c #(nop) COPY file:cbad11e2b6b88c38…   19.9MB
<missing>           4 weeks ago         /bin/sh -c #(nop) COPY file:fd3bca1e9167d639…   21MB
<missing>           4 weeks ago         /bin/sh -c #(nop) COPY dir:2761dc242787e3ab8…   39.2MB
<missing>           4 weeks ago         /bin/sh -c #(nop) COPY dir:8a9faa49606db326b…   8.49MB
<missing>           4 weeks ago         /bin/sh -c #(nop)  LABEL ImageName=reg.docke…   0B
<missing>           4 weeks ago         /bin/sh -c #(nop)  LABEL BaseRootfsLayerCoun…   0B
<missing>           4 weeks ago         /bin/sh -c #(nop)  LABEL BaseLayerCount=10      0B
<missing>           4 weeks ago         /bin/sh -c #(nop)  LABEL baseOS=reg.docker.a…   0B
<missing>           4 weeks ago         /bin/sh -c #(nop)  ENTRYPOINT [""]              0B
<missing>           4 weeks ago         /bin/sh -c #(nop)  CMD ["/sbin/init"]           0B
<missing>           4 weeks ago         /bin/sh -c #(nop) COPY dir:61a850de6501dac7b…   3.03kB
<missing>           4 weeks ago         /bin/sh -c sed -i -e 's/root:[^:]*:/root:*:/…   94.6MB
<missing>           4 weeks ago         /bin/sh -c #(nop) COPY dir:ca4e72cff3459ccab…   395B
<missing>           16 months ago                                                       282MB               Imported from -

再次dive 分析,镜像效率参数有些许改观

CI=true dive java-squash-11:1.0
Using default CI config
Image Source: docker://java-squash-11:1.0
Fetching image... (this can take a while for large images)
Analyzing image...
efficiency: 79.9717 %
UserSizeByes: 88655803400 bytes (887 MB)
SizeByes: 116808817600 bytes (1.2 GB)
wastedBytes: 360500520 bytes (360 MB)
userWastedPercent: 40.6629 %
Inefficient Files:
Count  Wasted Space  File Path
2        119 MB  /usr/lib/locale/locale-archive
...
2           0 B  /usr/lib/systemd/system/sysinit.target.wants/cryptsetup.target
Results:
FAIL: highestUserWastedPercent: too many bytes wasted, relative to the user bytes added (%-user-wasted-bytes=0.40662935326803434 > threshold=0.1)
SKIP: highestWastedBytes: rule disabled
FAIL: lowestEfficiency: image efficiency is too low (efficiency=0.7997167019774828 < threshold=0.9)
Result:FAIL [Total:3] [Passed:0] [Failed:2] [Warn:0] [Skipped:1]

2.2、完全压缩

即压缩成一层

docker-squash -f 25  -t java-squash-all:1.0 java:3.0
2023-01-20 13:53:47,397 root         INFO     docker-squash version 1.0.10, Docker 5138787, API 1.39...
2023-01-20 13:53:47,397 root         INFO     Using v2 image format
2023-01-20 13:53:47,401 root         INFO     Old image has 25 layers
2023-01-20 13:53:47,401 root         INFO     Checking if squashing is necessary...
2023-01-20 13:53:47,401 root         INFO     Attempting to squash last 25 layers...
2023-01-20 13:53:47,401 root         INFO     Saving image sha256:63a1b1edb376fb12838dbbef7749effc1e8e6a973d33a47aee194eff6a173edd to /tmp/docker-squash-23fgk8/old directory...
2023-01-20 13:54:06,767 root         INFO     Image saved!
2023-01-20 13:54:06,767 root         INFO     Squashing image 'java:3.0'...
2023-01-20 13:54:06,768 root         INFO     Starting squashing...
2023-01-20 13:54:06,768 root         INFO     Squashing file '/tmp/docker-squash-23fgk8/old/ddf4a6e4ea15a7ca3825c70e116e40f3a01f25b7df008d4517c826ef78c03dc8/layer.tar'...
2023-01-20 13:54:09,616 root         INFO     Squashing file '/tmp/docker-squash-23fgk8/old/7be6dcb4742458db7e2c77fb1ad9fd66555e6f08d28c74592a9b973740356919/layer.tar'...
2023-01-20 13:54:20,751 root         INFO     Squashing file '/tmp/docker-squash-23fgk8/old/57be802a5ecce1545d1fef09e3f0b04cef12386e3995b8f98b827c1fa690f2dc/layer.tar'...
2023-01-20 13:54:20,778 root         INFO     Squashing file '/tmp/docker-squash-23fgk8/old/e113fadd42d1969d71a6d30cf402938436e9aba0de9af3ed2cdacec9e1842103/layer.tar'...
2023-01-20 13:54:20,799 root         INFO     Squashing file '/tmp/docker-squash-23fgk8/old/eca237f8359a3c25227be27fd27ebff05b510f06b9768639e3484741d9995073/layer.tar'...
2023-01-20 13:54:20,809 root         INFO     Squashing file '/tmp/docker-squash-23fgk8/old/2a47dbd3a252894e057a55d676f92625d24bfc8ad10a28b008e8b87638480ee6/layer.tar'...
2023-01-20 13:54:20,871 root         INFO     Squashing file '/tmp/docker-squash-23fgk8/old/bb207541a62d1cf5aa5dc13e971301949a22d2c3016e317d2190f1b51bde0167/layer.tar'...
2023-01-20 13:54:20,876 root         INFO     Squashing file '/tmp/docker-squash-23fgk8/old/354eb0981c6f10dcf5744386501d61c670f5bfbf77063c778b26e5c0450543f3/layer.tar'...
2023-01-20 13:54:22,489 root         INFO     Squashing file '/tmp/docker-squash-23fgk8/old/e31074992543d56a24b7da3457af34c7df7439ced6d9c0bf72ce4122fc380d81/layer.tar'...
2023-01-20 13:54:22,492 root         INFO     Squashing file '/tmp/docker-squash-23fgk8/old/1641651324846664fa3c233e4459767551e4ab9f081a718085216d30687e0877/layer.tar'...
2023-01-20 13:54:52,084 root         INFO     Squashing finished!
2023-01-20 13:54:54,922 root         INFO     Original image size: 1166.43 MB
2023-01-20 13:54:54,922 root         INFO     Squashed image size: 981.28 MB
2023-01-20 13:54:54,922 root         INFO     Image size decreased by 15.87 %
2023-01-20 13:54:54,923 root         INFO     New squashed image ID is f508f38322ae8950e49bd8cbcf140356dd236654ecd6bf303440d93081f6f7c9
2023-01-20 13:55:04,532 root         INFO     Image registered in Docker daemon as java-squash-all:1.0
2023-01-20 13:55:04,624 root         INFO     Done

docker history 查看

docker history java-squash-all:1.0
IMAGE          CREATED              CREATED BY          SIZE                COMMENT
f508f38322ae   About a minute ago                       989MB               

docker images 比较一下大小

docker images | grep java
java-squash-all       1.0                 f508f38322ae        30 minutes ago      989MB
java-squash-11        1.0                 794121cd5892        42 minutes ago      1.17GB
java                  3.0                 63a1b1edb376        4 weeks ago         1.19GB

dive 分析

CI=true dive java-squash-all:1.0
Using default CI config
Image Source: docker://java-squash-all:1.0
Fetching image... (this can take a while for large images)
Analyzing image...
efficiency: 100.0000 %
UserSizeByes: 0 bytes (0 B)
SizeByes: 98904607400 bytes (989 MB)
wastedBytes: 0 bytes (0 B)
userWastedPercent: NaN %
Inefficient Files:
Count  Wasted Space  File Path
None
Results:
PASS: highestUserWastedPercent
SKIP: highestWastedBytes: rule disabled
PASS: lowestEfficiency
Result:PASS [Total:3] [Passed:2] [Failed:0] [Warn:0] [Skipped:1]

三、总结

1、docker-squash 根据docker history 层数对镜像进行压缩
2、-f 指定的层数越大,压缩效率越好
3、结合dive 工具,更直观展示压缩效率
4、压缩后的图像可以加载回Docker守护进程,即可以通过docker images 查看
5、使用docker-squash 也存在缺点,压缩为一层时无法根据docker history查看镜像构建历史。

参考文档

1、https://lequ7.com/guan-yu-docker-chuang-jian-zui-xiao-hua-de-rong-qi-jing-xiang-er.html
2、https://mp.weixin.qq.com/s/S1Ib08SpQbf1SCbCutUoqQ
3、https://blog.csdn.net/j_starry/article/details/125185506
4、https://github.com/jwilder/docker-squash
5、https://bbs.huaweicloud.com/blogs/336684
6、https://github.com/dive/
7、https://www.cnpython.com/pypi/docker-squash
8、https://cloud.tencent.com/developer/article/1444954

到此这篇关于docker镜像压缩squash的实现的文章就介绍到这了,更多相关docker squash内容请搜索本站以前的文章或继续浏览下面的相关文章希望大家以后多多支持本站!

声明:本站所有文章,如无特殊说明或标注,均为爬虫抓取以及网友投稿,版权归原作者所有。
0 条回复 A文章作者 M管理员
    暂无讨论,说说你的看法吧