nginx正向代理的配置和使用教程

本文主要介绍了nginx正向代理的配置和使用教程,文中通过示例代码介绍的非常详细,对大家的学习或者工作具有一定的参考学习价值,需要的朋友们下面随着小编来一起学习学习吧

nginx正向代理http,nginx正向代理https

  • 正向代理,指的是通过代理服务器 代理浏览器/客户端去重定向请求访问到目标服务器 的一种代理服务。正向代理服务的特点是代理服务器 代理的对象是浏览器/客户端,也就是对于目标服务器 来说浏览器/客户端是隐藏的。
  • nginx默认支持正向代理http,不支持https
  • nginx官方并不支持直接转发https请求,nginx支持https需要ngx_http_proxy_connect_module模块。github上开源了模块 https://github.com/chobits/ngx_http_proxy_connect_module。不过维护的ngx_http_proxy_connect_module模块的补丁也是有nginx版本限制的,需根据自身使用的nginx版本选择相应的正向代理模块。可以在REDEME.md的Select patch中查看nginx版本和模块的对应关系

安装包准备

下载nginx安装包

下载地址

下载正向代理模块的包

下载地址

版本与模块对照表

部署nginx服务

此处使用的是nginx-1.20.2,对应proxy_connect_rewrite_1018.patch

上传nginx包和正向模块包

mkdir /nginx
cd /nginx
[root@mysql nginx]# ll
-rw-r--r-- 1 root root 1062124 Feb 12 15:23 nginx-1.20.2.tar.gz
-rw-r--r-- 1 root root   57926 Feb 12 15:23 ngx_http_proxy_connect_module-master.zip

解压,改名

tar -xf nginx.tar.gz
unzip ngx_http_proxy_connect_module-master.zip
ll
drwxr-xr-x 9 1001 1001    4096 Feb 12 15:27 nginx-1.20.2
-rw-r--r-- 1 root root 1062124 Feb 12 15:23 nginx-1.20.2.tar.gz
drwxr-xr-x 5 root root    4096 Feb  9 16:54 ngx_http_proxy_connect_module-master
-rw-r--r-- 1 root root   57926 Feb 12 15:23 ngx_http_proxy_connect_module-master.zip
mv ngx_http_proxy_connect_module-master ngx_http_proxy_connect_module
ll
drwxr-xr-x 9 1001 1001    4096 Feb 12 15:27 nginx-1.20.2
-rw-r--r-- 1 root root 1062124 Feb 12 15:23 nginx-1.20.2.tar.gz
drwxr-xr-x 5 root root    4096 Feb  9 16:54 ngx_http_proxy_connect_module
-rw-r--r-- 1 root root   57926 Feb 12 15:23 ngx_http_proxy_connect_module-master.zip

安装nginx

yum -y install make gcc openssl openssl-devel pcre-devel zlib zlib-devel
cd nginx-1.20.2
ll
drwxr-xr-x 6 1001 1001   4096 Feb 12 15:20 auto
-rw-r--r-- 1 1001 1001 312251 Nov 16  2021 CHANGES
-rw-r--r-- 1 1001 1001 476577 Nov 16  2021 CHANGES.ru
drwxr-xr-x 2 1001 1001   4096 Feb 12 15:20 conf
-rwxr-xr-x 1 1001 1001   2590 Nov 16  2021 configure
drwxr-xr-x 4 1001 1001   4096 Feb 12 15:20 contrib
drwxr-xr-x 2 1001 1001   4096 Feb 12 15:20 html
-rw-r--r-- 1 1001 1001   1397 Nov 16  2021 LICENSE
drwxr-xr-x 2 1001 1001   4096 Feb 12 15:20 man
-rw-r--r-- 1 1001 1001     49 Nov 16  2021 README
drwxr-xr-x 9 1001 1001   4096 Feb 12 15:20 src
# 查看正向代理模块proxy_connect_rewrite_1018.patch的位置
ll ../ngx_http_proxy_connect_module/patch/
-rw-r--r-- 1 root root 9849 Feb  9 16:54 proxy_connect_1014.patch
-rw-r--r-- 1 root root 9697 Feb  9 16:54 proxy_connect.patch
-rw-r--r-- 1 root root 9408 Feb  9 16:54 proxy_connect_rewrite_1014.patch
-rw-r--r-- 1 root root 9505 Feb  9 16:54 proxy_connect_rewrite_101504.patch
-rw-r--r-- 1 root root 9496 Feb  9 16:54 proxy_connect_rewrite_1015.patch
-rw-r--r-- 1 root root 9553 Feb  9 16:54 proxy_connect_rewrite_1018.patch
-rw-r--r-- 1 root root 9306 Feb  9 16:54 proxy_connect_rewrite_102101.patch
-rw-r--r-- 1 root root 9337 Feb  9 16:54 proxy_connect_rewrite.patch
# 导入模块 后面为模块路径
patch -p1 < /nginx/ngx_http_proxy_connect_module/patch/proxy_connect_rewrite_1018.patch
# 编译
./configure --add-module=/nginx/ngx_http_proxy_connect_module
# 安装,默认安装在/usr/local/nginx/
make && make install
# 查看nginx
ll /usr/local/nginx/
drwx------ 2 nobody root 4096 Feb 12 15:47 client_body_temp
drwxr-xr-x 2 root   root 4096 Feb 12 15:46 conf
drwx------ 2 nobody root 4096 Feb 12 15:47 fastcgi_temp
drwxr-xr-x 2 root   root 4096 Feb 12 15:28 html
drwxr-xr-x 2 root   root 4096 Feb 12 15:47 logs
drwx------ 2 nobody root 4096 Feb 12 15:47 proxy_temp
drwxr-xr-x 2 root   root 4096 Feb 12 15:33 sbin
drwx------ 2 nobody root 4096 Feb 12 15:47 scgi_temp
drwx------ 2 nobody root 4096 Feb 12 15:47 uwsgi_temp

配置正向代理

cd /usr/local/nginx/
#gzip  on;下添加
vim conf/nginx.conf
#gzip  on;
#正向代理转发http请求
server {
#指定DNS服务器IP地址
resolver 114.114.114.114;
#监听80端口,http默认端口80
listen 80;
#服务器IP或域名
server_name  localhost;
#正向代理转发http请求
location / {
proxy_pass                 http://$host$request_uri;
proxy_set_header           HOST $host;
proxy_buffers              256 4k;
proxy_max_temp_file_size   0k;
proxy_connect_timeout      30;
proxy_send_timeout         60;
proxy_read_timeout         60;
proxy_next_upstream error  timeout invalid_header http_502;
}
}
#正向代理转发https请求
server {
#指定DNS服务器IP地址
resolver 114.114.114.114;
#监听443端口,https默认端口443
listen 443;
#正向代理转发https请求
proxy_connect;
proxy_connect_allow            443 563;
proxy_connect_connect_timeout  10s;
proxy_connect_read_timeout     10s;
proxy_connect_send_timeout     10s;
location / {
proxy_pass http://$host;
proxy_set_header Host $host;
}
}

创建nginx用户

nginx服务以用户nginx身份启动

useradd nginx

检查nginx配置并启动

sbin/nginx -t
sbin/nginx
ss -utnlp | grep nginx
tcp    LISTEN     0      511       *:443                   *:*                   users:(("nginx",pid=6645,fd=7),("nginx",pid=6644,fd=7))
tcp    LISTEN     0      511       *:80                    *:*                   users:(("nginx",pid=6645,fd=6),("nginx",pid=6644,fd=6))

nginx服务所在服务器验证正向代理功能

 curl -I http://www.baidu.com/ -v -x 127.0.0.1:80
curl -I https://www.baidu.com/ -v -x 127.0.0.1:443
curl -I http://www.baidu.com/ -v -x 127.0.0.1:80
* About to connect() to proxy 127.0.0.1 port 80 (#0)
*   Trying 127.0.0.1...
* Connected to 127.0.0.1 (127.0.0.1) port 80 (#0)
> HEAD http://www.baidu.com/ HTTP/1.1
> User-Agent: curl/7.29.0
> Host: www.baidu.com
> Accept: */*
> Proxy-Connection: Keep-Alive
>
< HTTP/1.1 200 OK
HTTP/1.1 200 OK
< Server: nginx/1.20.2
Server: nginx/1.20.2
< Date: Sun, 12 Feb 2023 09:03:40 GMT
Date: Sun, 12 Feb 2023 09:03:40 GMT
< Content-Type: text/html
Content-Type: text/html
< Content-Length: 277
Content-Length: 277
< Connection: keep-alive
Connection: keep-alive
< Accept-Ranges: bytes
Accept-Ranges: bytes
< Cache-Control: private, no-cache, no-store, proxy-revalidate, no-transform
Cache-Control: private, no-cache, no-store, proxy-revalidate, no-transform
< Etag: "575e1f60-115"
Etag: "575e1f60-115"
< Last-Modified: Mon, 13 Jun 2016 02:50:08 GMT
Last-Modified: Mon, 13 Jun 2016 02:50:08 GMT
< Pragma: no-cache
Pragma: no-cache
<
* Connection #0 to host 127.0.0.1 left intact
curl -I https://www.baidu.com/ -v -x 127.0.0.1:443
* About to connect() to proxy 127.0.0.1 port 443 (#0)
*   Trying 127.0.0.1...
* Connected to 127.0.0.1 (127.0.0.1) port 443 (#0)
* Establish HTTP proxy tunnel to www.baidu.com:443
> CONNECT www.baidu.com:443 HTTP/1.1
> Host: www.baidu.com:443
> User-Agent: curl/7.29.0
> Proxy-Connection: Keep-Alive
>
< HTTP/1.1 200 Connection Established
HTTP/1.1 200 Connection Established
< Proxy-agent: nginx
Proxy-agent: nginx
<
* Proxy replied OK to CONNECT request
* Initializing NSS with certpath: sql:/etc/pki/nssdb
*   CAfile: /etc/pki/tls/certs/ca-bundle.crt
CApath: none
* SSL connection using TLS_ECDHE_RSA_WITH_AES_128_GCM_SHA256
* Server certificate:
*       subject: CN=baidu.com,O="Beijing Baidu Netcom Science Technology Co., Ltd",OU=service operation department,L=beijing,ST=beijing,C=CN
*       start date: Jul 05 05:16:02 2022 GMT
*       expire date: Aug 06 05:16:01 2023 GMT
*       common name: baidu.com
*       issuer: CN=GlobalSign RSA OV SSL CA 2018,O=GlobalSign nv-sa,C=BE
> HEAD / HTTP/1.1
> User-Agent: curl/7.29.0
> Host: www.baidu.com
> Accept: */*
>
< HTTP/1.1 200 OK
HTTP/1.1 200 OK
< Accept-Ranges: bytes
Accept-Ranges: bytes
< Cache-Control: private, no-cache, no-store, proxy-revalidate, no-transform
Cache-Control: private, no-cache, no-store, proxy-revalidate, no-transform
< Connection: keep-alive
Connection: keep-alive
< Content-Length: 277
Content-Length: 277
< Content-Type: text/html
Content-Type: text/html
< Date: Sun, 12 Feb 2023 09:03:40 GMT
Date: Sun, 12 Feb 2023 09:03:40 GMT
< Etag: "575e1f60-115"
Etag: "575e1f60-115"
< Last-Modified: Mon, 13 Jun 2016 02:50:08 GMT
Last-Modified: Mon, 13 Jun 2016 02:50:08 GMT
< Pragma: no-cache
Pragma: no-cache
< Server: bfe/1.0.8.18
Server: bfe/1.0.8.18
<
* Connection #0 to host 127.0.0.1 left intact

配置不能访问外网的服务器(即内网服务器),使其可以访问外网

liunx服务器配置

1.只配置使用yum时,能够使用正向代理访问外网

#追加配置
vim /etc/yum.conf
proxy=http://192.168.0.20:80		#nginx正向代理服务器的地址
proxy=ftp://192.168.0.20:80			#nginx正向代理服务器的地址

2.只配置使用wget时,能够使用正向代理访问外网

#追加配置
vim /etc/wgetrc
http_proxy=192.168.0.20:80     #nginx正向代理服务器的地址
http_proxy=192.168.0.20:443    #nginx正向代理服务器的地址

3.全局配置,所以访问请求都能够使用正向代理访问外网

#追加配置
vim /etc/profile
http_proxy=192.168.0.20:80
https_proxy=192.168.0.20:443
ftp_proxy=192.168.0.20:443
export http_proxy
export https_proxy
export ftp_proxy
# 加载配置
source /etc/profile

windows服务器配置

验证不能访问外网的服务器(即内网服务器),使用代理上网

curl -I http://www.baidu.com
curl -I https://www.baidu.com
curl -I http://www.baidu.com
HTTP/1.1 200 OK
Server: nginx/1.20.2
Date: Sun, 12 Feb 2023 09:31:03 GMT
Content-Type: text/html
Content-Length: 277
Connection: keep-alive
Accept-Ranges: bytes
Cache-Control: private, no-cache, no-store, proxy-revalidate, no-transform
Etag: "575e1f60-115"
Last-Modified: Mon, 13 Jun 2016 02:50:08 GMT
Pragma: no-cache
curl -I https://www.baidu.com
HTTP/1.1 200 Connection Established
Proxy-agent: nginx
HTTP/1.1 200 OK
Accept-Ranges: bytes
Cache-Control: private, no-cache, no-store, proxy-revalidate, no-transform
Connection: keep-alive
Content-Length: 277
Content-Type: text/html
Date: Sun, 12 Feb 2023 09:31:07 GMT
Etag: "575e1f60-115"
Last-Modified: Mon, 13 Jun 2016 02:50:08 GMT
Pragma: no-cache
Server: bfe/1.0.8.18

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